SYS-CON MEDIA Authors: Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Maria C. Horton, Andy Thurai, Zakia Bouachraoui

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A FOSS Perspective On Richard Schaeffer’s Three Tactics For Computer Security

Proper configuration is the tactical implementation of best practices

Federal Computer Week published a great, succinct quote from Richard Schaeffer Jr., the NSA’s (National Security Agency) information assurance director, on three approaches that are effective in protecting systems from security attacks:

We believe that if one institutes best practices, proper configurations
[and] good network monitoring that a system ought to be able to
withstand about 80 percent of the commonly known attack mechanisms
against systems today, Schaeffer said in his testimony. You can
actually harden your network environment to raise the bar such that
the adversary has to resort to much, much more sophisticated means,
thereby raising the risk of detection.”

Taking Schaeffer’s three tactics as our lead, here is a FOSS perspective on these protection mechanisms:

Best practices implies community effort: discussing, sharing and collectively building understanding and techniques for managing systems and their software components. FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) communities develop, discuss and share these best practices in their project support and development forums. Debian’s package management system implements some of these best practices in the operating system itself thereby allowing users who do not participate in the development and support communities to realize the benefits of best practices without understanding or even knowing that they exist. This is one of the important benefits of policy- and package-based operating systems like Debian and Ubuntu.

Proper configuration is the tactical implementation of best practices. Audit is a critical element here. Debian packages can use their postinst scripts (which are run after a package is installed, upgraded, or re-installed) to audit and sometimes even automatically fix configuration problems. Right now, attentive, diligent systems administrators, i.e., human beings, are required to ensure proper configuration as no vendor — not even Debian — has managed to automate the validation let alone automatically fix bad configurations. I think this is an area where the FOSS community can lead by considering and adopting innovations for ensuring proper configuration of software.

Good network monitoring invokes the discipline of knowing what services are running and investigating when service interruptions occur. Monitoring can contribute to configuration auditing and can help focus one’s efforts on any best practices that should be considered. That is, monitoring helps by engaging critical thinking and building a tactile awareness of the network — what it does and what is exposed to the activities of a frequently malicious Internet. So, like proper configurations, monitoring requires diligent, attentive systems administrators to maintain security. LinuxForce’s Remote Responder services builds best practices around three essential FOSS tools for good network monitoring: Nagios, Munin, and Logcheck.

More Stories By CJ Fearnley

CJ Fearnley was an early leader in the adoption and implementation of Linux and Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in Philadelphia.

In 1993, he recognized the emerging value of the Linux operating system. Through his leadership position in the Philadelphia Area Computer Society (PACS), he began introducing Linux to organizations in the Greater Philadelphia region. At PACS, he organized monthly presentations on Linux and FOSS and wrote 29 columns in the organization’s print periodical, The Databus. He then founded and helped build Philadelphia’s premiere Linux user group, the Philadelphia area Linux User Group (PLUG), where he continues to facilitate its first Wednesday meetings. After helping to establish a community and culture for Linux and FOSS in Philadelphia, CJ started building his first company, LinuxForce, to be the “go-to” firm for organizations wanting to realize the promise and power of Linux. LinuxForce is a leading technology services provider specializing in the development, implementation, management and support of Linux-based systems, with a particular expertise in Debian GNU/Linux and Ubuntu. LinuxForce provides remote Linux systems management services to clients including The Franklin Institute Science Museum and the Aker Philadelphia Shipyard through its flagship service offering Remote Responder.

In addition, CJ Fearnley has applied his organizational and leadership talent to building Buckminster Fuller’s legacy. CJ published an essay Reading Synergetics: Some Tips to help students of Fuller’s magnum opus, Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, wade through that complex, multi-dimensional tome. He started maintaining The R. Buckminster Fuller FAQ on the Internet in 1994. His work on Buckminster Fuller was featured in an extensive interview published by Dome Magazine in 1999. In 2002 CJ started building the Synergetics Collaborative (SNEC) as an organization to bring together people with an interest in Synergetics’ methods and principles in workshops, symposia, seminars, and other meetings.

CJ received his BA in Mathematical Sciences and Philosophy from Binghamton University in 1989 where he was a Regents Scholar and has done graduate work at Drexel University. CJ was named to the Philadelphia Business Journal’s 2006 “40 Under 40″ List as one of the region’s most accomplished young professionals.

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