SYS-CON MEDIA Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Zakia Bouachraoui, Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Maria C. Horton

Blog Feed Post

The Holocaust in Frankfurt am Main

Frankfurt

am Main

The City and the Holocaust

 

 

Copperplate engraving depicting a Jewish man & woman circa 1703

Founded in Charlemagne’s time, Frankfurt was for many years the site of the election and coronation of the German emperors, and in the fourteenth century it became an imperial free city, a status it retained until its annexation by Prussia in 1866.

 

Jews first settled in Frankfurt in 1074 and over the course of time its Jewish community became one of the most important in Europe. In the nineteenth century Frankfurt was a cultural centre of the Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah), as well as of Neo- Orthodoxy.

 

It also played an important role in commerce, industry and banking – the Rothschild Bank had its centre in Frankfurt until the early twentieth Century. Two of the outstanding personalities based in Frankfurt in the twentieth Century were the philosophers, Franz Rosenzweig and Martin Buber.

 

In 1817 the city had a Jewish population of 3,300, which was ten percent of the total population, in 1930 this had risen to 30,000 and by June 1933, there were 26,158 Jews living in the city.

 

Frankfurt Am Main was one of the largest Jewish centres in Germany, second only to Berlin, it even had a Jewish mayor, Ludwig Landmann, when the Nazis came to power.

 

Following the Nazi rise to power on the 30 January 1933, the Jews of Frankfurt were subjected to physical assaults, as the Nazis did not wait for the official launching of the anti-Jewish boycott on the 1 April 1933.

 

Trade went down sharply in the Jewish stores and many went bankrupt and many Jewish owned enterprises were transferred to Nazi ownership. In the period from March to October 1933, 536 Jewish business enterprises in Frankfurt were closed.

 

The new Nazi mayor dismissed all Jews employed by the city even before the enactment of the national law to that effect, when the law was passed, the mayor had to re-instate Jewish employees who had seen active service in the Great War, since the new law specifically exempted them from dismissal.

 

Following the example set by the city government, all public institutions gradually dismissed the Jews on their books- the hospitals, law-courts, schools, university and institutes of culture and the arts.

 

When the Nuremburg Laws went into effect in 1935, Jews who had been front-line soldiers lost their exemption and were also let go, most privately owned commercial establishments also dismissed their Jewish employees.

 

As a result of the deterioration of economic conditions among the Jews, the two Jewish communities – the general and the “secessionist” Orthodox community- faced financial collapse. Their members, however, were willing to pay high community taxes and make substantial contributions in the form of cash or property, and thereby enabled the communities and welfare organisations to continue functioning.

 

Nazi party rally in Frankfurt am Main, 1932

In fact, in response to the growing needs, a large welfare network was established, in 1935, four thousand five hundred Jews were in need of help, this amounted to almost twenty percent of the Jewish population. In addition to financial assistance or help in kind – mainly clothing and food, a vocational training programme was set up, for the re-training of hundreds of youngsters of both sexes in productive occupations, trades and agriculture.

 

The Jews of Frankfurt – like Jews elsewhere in Germany – responded to their exclusion from society and cultural life by setting up their own cultural activities. In 1933 Martin Buber re-activated the Judisches Lehrhaus (Jewish Academy), which Franz Rosenzweig had established in the 1920’s, with a varied programme of lectures.

 

A Jewish symphony orchestra was formed, as were other musical groups and theatrical troupes, and the Jews had a rich schedule of performances and exhibitions from which to choose, ranging from music to photography.

 

A sports programme was also organised, with thousands of youngsters participating, these activities were confined to special sports complexes; in 1935 a special swimming pool was allocated as the only one to which Jews were admitted – the Jewish community paid an annual fee for its use.

 

In 1937 Jacob Hoffmann, the leader of the Mizrahi movement in Germany and the Orthodox rabbi serving the main community, was expelled to Hungary. Among the Polish Jews expelled from Germany on the 26 October 1938, 2,000 were from Frankfurt. On the 31 October they were allowed to return to the city, but were denied access to their homes, which in the interval had been sealed by the police.

 

The Jewish community provided accommodation for them in school buildings and private houses, and the Jewish welfare agencies took care of them until they were able to return to their own homes.

 

During the Kristallnacht pogroms on the 9 -10 November 1938, the big synagogues situated at Friedberger Anlage, Dominikanerplatz, Grosser Wollgraben, and Freiherr –vom- Stein-Strasse were burned down. Jewish Community buildings including the Jewish Museum and most of the small prayer houses were burned to the ground. Gangs of rioters roamed the streets, ransacking and destroying Jewish stores, and also causing loss of life.

 

In the following days, thousands of Jews were arrested in their homes, on the streets and in the railway stations. For several days they were detained in a large public hall, and were then taken to Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps.

 

Nazi propaganda stressed the point that the family of German diplomat Ernst von Rath, whose murder was the pretext for the pogroms came from Frankfurt, and that by coincidence his assassin Herschel Grynszpan had been a student at the Frankfurt Yeshiva. The Yeshiva building was destroyed by the Nazis

 

Read more here: http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/nazioccupation/frankfurt.html

 

The Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team

www.HolocaustResearchProject.org

 

 

Copyright Carmelo Lisciotto H.E.A.R.T 2012



Copyright Carmelo Lisciotto H.E.A.R.T 2010

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Holocaust Research Project

The aim of H.E.A.R.T is to inform and educate people about the Holocaust and the extermination programs conducted by the Nazi regime throughout Europe during the Second World War.

H.E.A.R.T research and material is contributed from a group of independent Holocaust researchers who devote their spare time to research for the production of this website and other forms of related publications, such as leaflets and books.

H.E.A.R.T is run by its trustees and directors, who manage the daily administration of the website, review all research materials, fact checking, and addressing any required corrections.

Most materials presented on the H.E.A.R.T website originate in Poland, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom as well as from private sources in the USA and other countries.

H.E.A.R.T currently accepts no new membership however we do maintain affiliations with educational institutions and private associations that contribute articles, photos, rare documents, etc.

Contributed text and pages will appear on the website as a "Guest Publication" with the author maintaining full copyright to the submitted text however page design and layout is owned by © H.E.A.R.T. All other material presented on this website is subject to H.E.A.R.T copyright however all pages may be used “Freely” providing the source is credited as the following:

"Courtesy of the Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team www.HolocaustResearchProject.org " © H.E.A.R.T www.HolocaustResearchProject.org

Latest Stories
CloudEXPO has been the M&A capital for Cloud companies for more than a decade with memorable acquisition news stories which came out of CloudEXPO expo floor. DevOpsSUMMIT New York faculty member Greg Bledsoe shared his views on IBM's Red Hat acquisition live from NASDAQ floor. Acquisition news was announced during CloudEXPO New York which took place November 12-13, 2019 in New York City.
Blockchain has shifted from hype to reality across many industries including Financial Services, Supply Chain, Retail, Healthcare and Government. While traditional tech and crypto organizations are generally male dominated, women have embraced blockchain technology from its inception. This is no more evident than at companies where women occupy many of the blockchain roles and leadership positions. Join this panel to hear three women in blockchain share their experience and their POV on the futu...
"At the keynote this morning we spoke about the value proposition of Nutanix, of having a DevOps culture and a mindset, and the business outcomes of achieving agility and scale, which everybody here is trying to accomplish," noted Mark Lavi, DevOps Solution Architect at Nutanix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
BMC has unmatched experience in IT management, supporting 92 of the Forbes Global 100, and earning recognition as an ITSM Gartner Magic Quadrant Leader for five years running. Our solutions offer speed, agility, and efficiency to tackle business challenges in the areas of service management, automation, operations, and the mainframe.
As you know, enterprise IT conversation over the past year have often centered upon the open-source Kubernetes container orchestration system. In fact, Kubernetes has emerged as the key technology -- and even primary platform -- of cloud migrations for a wide variety of organizations. Kubernetes is critical to forward-looking enterprises that continue to push their IT infrastructures toward maximum functionality, scalability, and flexibility. As they do so, IT professionals are also embr...
Docker and Kubernetes are key elements of modern cloud native deployment automations. After building your microservices, common practice is to create docker images and create YAML files to automate the deployment with Docker and Kubernetes. Writing these YAMLs, Dockerfile descriptors are really painful and error prone.Ballerina is a new cloud-native programing language which understands the architecture around it - the compiler is environment aware of microservices directly deployable into infra...
Apptio fuels digital business transformation. Technology leaders use Apptio's machine learning to analyze and plan their technology spend so they can invest in products that increase the speed of business and deliver innovation. With Apptio, they translate raw costs, utilization, and billing data into business-centric views that help their organization optimize spending, plan strategically, and drive digital strategy that funds growth of the business. Technology leaders can gather instant recomm...
In an age of borderless networks, security for the cloud and security for the corporate network can no longer be separated. Security teams are now presented with the challenge of monitoring and controlling access to these cloud environments, at the same time that developers quickly spin up new cloud instances and executives push forwards new initiatives. The vulnerabilities created by migration to the cloud, such as misconfigurations and compromised credentials, require that security teams t...
Serverless Architecture is the new paradigm shift in cloud application development. It has potential to take the fundamental benefit of cloud platform leverage to another level. "Focus on your application code, not the infrastructure" All the leading cloud platform provide services to implement Serverless architecture : AWS Lambda, Azure Functions, Google Cloud Functions, IBM Openwhisk, Oracle Fn Project.
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In their Day 3 Keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, and Mark Lav...
AI and machine learning disruption for Enterprises started happening in the areas such as IT operations management (ITOPs) and Cloud management and SaaS apps. In 2019 CIOs will see disruptive solutions for Cloud & Devops, AI/ML driven IT Ops and Cloud Ops. Customers want AI-driven multi-cloud operations for monitoring, detection, prevention of disruptions. Disruptions cause revenue loss, unhappy users, impacts brand reputation etc.
The platform combines the strengths of Singtel's extensive, intelligent network capabilities with Microsoft's cloud expertise to create a unique solution that sets new standards for IoT applications," said Mr Diomedes Kastanis, Head of IoT at Singtel. "Our solution provides speed, transparency and flexibility, paving the way for a more pervasive use of IoT to accelerate enterprises' digitalisation efforts. AI-powered intelligent connectivity over Microsoft Azure will be the fastest connected pat...
Serverless Computing or Functions as a Service (FaaS) is gaining momentum. Amazon is fueling the innovation by expanding Lambda to edge devices and content distribution network. IBM, Microsoft, and Google have their own FaaS offerings in the public cloud. There are over half-a-dozen open source serverless projects that are getting the attention of developers.
As you know, enterprise IT conversation over the past year have often centered upon the open-source Kubernetes container orchestration system. In fact, Kubernetes has emerged as the key technology -- and even primary platform -- of cloud migrations for a wide variety of organizations. Kubernetes is critical to forward-looking enterprises that continue to push their IT infrastructures toward maximum functionality, scalability, and flexibility. As they do so, IT professionals are also embr...
The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long development cycles that produce software that is obsolete at launch. DevOps may be disruptive, but it is essential. DevOpsSUMMIT at CloudEXPO expands the DevOps community, enable a wide sharing of knowledge, and educate delegates and technology providers alike.