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Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States

NEW YORK, July 4, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States
http://www.reportlinker.com/p01497377/Analyzing-Renewable-Energy-in-the-United-States.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Renewable_energy

There is no doubt that the United States is a torch bearer in the renewable energy industry. In fact, 11.14 percent of the electricity produced in the US in the first six months of 2010, came from renewable energy resources itself. The US was the largest producer of electricity from wind power, solar power and geothermal sources in 2009, coming in second to China in the overall production of renewable energy.

The US has one of the largest wind power installed capacities in the world, enough to provide nearly 10 million households across the country. Following wind, solar power also has a major share to contribute to the total electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the US.

President Obama has called for doubling the amount of renewable energy being used in the next three years particularly in order to meet the challenges of climate change and energy security.

In this industry scenario, Aruvians Rsearch carries out an in-depth analysis of the renewable energy sector in the United States.

Aruvians research report analyzes the following renewable energy segments in the US - wind power, solar power, biomass power, biofuels, fuel cells, geothermal power, hydropower, distributed generation technologies, microgrids, combined heat and power/cogeneration, waste-to-energy, waste management, and the smart grid.

The report begins with an overview of the global energy industry in order to give the reader an idea of why the world requires renewable energy. An introduction to the US renewable energy industry includes an overview of the market, market trends, integration of renewable energy, and an analysis of the challenges facing the US energy industry as well as the factors driving the industry. The impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill is discussed amongst the impacts on the industry.

We also include an analysis on why the US needs renewable energy.

Moving on, we analyze the competition in the industry, policy resolutions to the US energy crisis, and many other points that will give the reader an idea of the entire landscape of the US energy and renewable energy industry.

The report analyzes the US renewable energy market in a SWOT framework analysis and also undertakes a SWOT framework analysis of the leading five renewable energy technogies in the US including wind power, solar power, geother energy, biomass power, and small hydropower.

The regulatory framework in place for promoting renewable energy resources in the US is analyzed in-depth along with their impact on the renewable energy sector. Some of the regulations analyzed in this report include state-wise analysis of feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, the DOE Wind Program, Fuel Cell initiatives, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and 2005, the California Solar Initiative, the Solar America Initiative, and the most recent American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. We also analyze the provisions and impact of this Act on the energy industry.

Some of the major players in the renewable energy industry having presence across sectors are analyzed, such as GE ENergy, Bosch, Sharp Corporation, Shell Renewables, Iberdrola Renovables, and others.

Moving on the Section 2 of the research report, we carry out an in-depth analysis of the wind power market in the United States.

This section includes a market profile, market statistics, wind power generation by state, installed capacity growth, analysis of wind resources in the US, and many other points that are important for investors looking to invest in the US wind power sector.

This section also undertakes a cost analysis of wind power in the US, along with an analysis of the major market trends and challenges facing the industry.

The small wind turbines market in the US is analyzed comprehensively under this section as well and includes a market profile, market statistics, the emergence and importance of hybrid small wind turbines, very small wind turbines, wind-diesel hybrid turbine systems, and the economics of small wind turbines. The section also covers the various factors that have an impact on the US SWT market, regulations pertaining to the small wind turbine market, and market trends.

We analyze the market for micro wind generation in the US as well. This brief section includes a technical analysis of micro wind generation in the US.

Following the analysis of the overall US wind power market, we move on to analyze wind power markets in the US on a state level. States analyzed in this section include Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and Wyoming.

Major wind farms in the US such as the Biglow Canyon wind farm, the Brazos wind ranch, the Fenton wind farm, and many others are also analyzed, along with an in-depth market outlook for the wind power sector in the US.

Major players in the US wind power industry including both domestic and foreign players are analyzed. Companies analyzed include Acciona SA, Airtricity, Clipper Windpower, Blue H Group Technologies, E.ON, Iberdrola, Mitsubishi Heaby Industries, REpower AG, Suzlon, Vestas, and many more.

Wrapping up the section on wind power, we move to section 3, an analysis of solar power in the United States. This section covers the solar power market starting with an analysis of solar resources in the US, growth of the industry, the impact of solar energy on the consumer energy market, etc.

A detailed analysis of the emerging technologies in the solar power market in the US is undertaken in Aruvians report. Some of the technologies analyzed include carbon nanotubes, flexible solar cells, hybrid solar cells, holographics solar concentrator technology, miniature solar cells, nanowire solar cells, organic photovoltaics, and many more.

Incentives provided for solar power in the US such as federal tax credits, feed-in tariffs, state-level incentives, the Solar America Initiative, and solar renewable energy certificates are analyzed in section 3 of the report dealing with solar power. Federal/state programs promoting solar power is also analyzed. These include the US DOE SunShot Initiative, the US DOE Solar Decathlon, the Open PV Mapping Project, amongst others.

Following on, we analyze the solar power market by states. Solar power in the following states are analyzed: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Oregon.

An analysis of the solar thermal power plants in the US includes the profiles of the Blythe solar power project, the Calico solar energy project, Fort Irwin project, Ivanpah solar power facility, the Keahole solar power project, the Kimberlina solar thermal energy plant, the Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center, and many others.

A section that stands out in Aruvians report is the invest know-how segement about the US solar power industry. This section covers what every investor needs to know before investing in the US solar power industry.

Market outlook for the US solar power market and an analysis of the leading companies in this market complete this analysis of the US solar power market.

Moving on to section 4, we analysis briefly the US biomass power market. This section begins with a definition of biomass to clearly distinguish the biomass market from the biofuels market. A technical analysis of biomass and the challenges facing this industry adds to the market profile. Cost analysis and the market outlook for this renewable energy segment completes this brief profile of the US biomass power market.

Section 5 of the report Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States analyzes the US biofuels market.

Part A of section 5 begins with an analysis of the overall biofuel market in the US. This includes production and capacity installation data for ethanol and biodiesel, the industry structure. market opportunities and issues, as well as government funding trends.

We then analyze the US ethanol market in which we undertake an analysis of the tax incentives, regulatory framework, ethanol by-products, and a market outlook of the US ethanol industry.

A brief analysis of the US biodiesel market, US methanol fuel market, and the US butanol fuel market is also included.

Ethanol and Biodiesel subsidies are analyzed along with a market outlook for the US biofuels market. Major players in the industry such as Abengoa Bioenergy, Allegro Biodiesel, American AgFuels, and many others are analyzed in the section.

Moving on to section 6 of the report, we analyze the fuel cells market in the US.

The analysis of the fuel cells market in the US includes a basic analysis of fuel cell design and technologies along with the investment profile of the industry as well. The various types of fuel cells such as alkaline, direct borohydride fuel cells, direct methanol, direct ethanol, formic acid fuel cells, and many others are profiled comprehensively in the report.

The challenges facing the US fuel cells market such as design issues, cost issues, and many other problems are analyzed, followed by an analysis of fuel cell initiatives by state.

Market outlook for the sector and an analysis of the major players in the market such as Altergy, Astris Energi, Canon, Casio, Eneos, Entegris, Cellex Power, Jadoo Power, P21, Plug Power, and many others wrap up the section on fuel cells.

Section 7 analyzes the geothermal energy industry in the US. The market is analyzed taking into account an analysis of The Geysers, the biggest geothermal energy resource in the US. Installed geothermal capacity, environmental impact of geothermal power, regulatory framework, and the management of carbon emissions from geothermal power in the US are analyzed in this section.

Market outlook and an analysis of the major players in the industry completes the section on geothermal power in the US. Some of the major players analyzed include Calpine Corporation, Enel Green Power, US Geothermal Inc, Ormat International, amongst others.

Coming to section 8 of the report, we analyze the emerging sector of hydropower in the US. The market is analyzed in terms of hydroelectric power plants int he US, US hydropower production, baseload power from hydropower, the economics of hydropower for the US, and a market outlook of this renewable energy sector.

Section 9 covers the lucrative segment of distributed generation technologies in the US as well as the emergence of Microgrids in the country.

We begin with a definition of distributed generation, and move on to the analysis the various technologies involved in the industry. We look at the importance of microturbines, PV systems, reciprocating engines, and small-scale wind power systems in generating power. Nuclear power, underwater power systems, electric vehicles, and other applications of stirling engines are also analyzed.

The relation between distributed generation and renewable energy is analyzed strategically, along with an analysis of economic dispatch.

The emergence of microgrids in the US is of great importance to the renewable energy industry and we look at the microgrids phenomenon in the following sections of this report. We analyze the many designs of microgrids in the US, the operations of a microgrid, integration of microgrids with photovoltaics, fuel cells, and energy efficiency is also discussed.

Ownership models of microgrids in the US and the relation between microgrids and the US smart grid is analyzed in-depth in this section.

The role of integrated demand side management, distributed generation, renewable energy sources, and energy storage plays an important part in the renewable energy industry and we analyze this through an understanding of the integration of DER with smart meter deployment and other business models.

Market outlook for distributed energy technologies in the US market completes this section.

Section 10 is also related to the above section as we undertake an analysis of combined heat and power in the US.

In the analysis of the CHP market in the US, we cover the analysis of CHP systems in the US such as steam turbines, gas turbines, reciprocating internal combustion engines, microturbines, and fuels cells. We also undertake an analysis of the market profile, market challenges, regulatory framework, role of CHP in district energy and district heating, and the role CHP plays in the energy situation in the US. This section takes a look at factors such as growing energy demand, climate change, restratints on existing energy sources, and others, and how CHP technologies can help in this scenario.

Mini and Micro gas turbines for CHP in the US is analyzed including the pros and cons of microturbines and CHP, the market for microturbines in the US, and others. The Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids in the US is an important analysis included in this section and takes a look at the application for a market-based micro CHP grid in the US.

Emissions trading in the US and role of CHP is discussed along with why CHP is a competitive solution for the US. This includes an analysis of the economic benefits for the US, local energy issues, modernized infrastructre requirements, and other factors. CHP Regulatoions in the US and the impact they have on the overall market is also analyzed, followed by an analysis of energy portfolio standards and CHP experience by states. States analyzed in this section include Washington, New York, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Minnesota, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, and Maine.

Market outlook and an analysis of the major players in the industry such as Acumentrics, Energetix, Yanmar America, Plug Power, Husky Energy, Cogeneration Planners, and others, complete this section.

Moving to section 11, we cover the waste-to-energy market in the US. We begin with a debate on whether waste-to-energy is a source of renewable energy or not, and proceed to analyze the market including the various technologies in use, environmental regulations in the US impacting this industry, market trends, and some case studies to establish the importance of waste-to-energy technologies in the reneawble energy sector.

Major players such as Babcock Power, Covanta Energy, Interstate Waste Technologies, and others are analyzed, along with an industry outlook.

Section 12 deals with a similar segment as we briefly analyze the waste management sector in the US. The US waste management sector is analyzed through a market profile, concepts of waste management in use in the US, solid waste management techniques in the US, etc.

Section 13 of the report looks at the integration of renewable electricity on to the US Smart Grid. The section covers renewable electricity integration on the US smart grid, energy storage at the grid level in the US, transmission of renewable energy over long distances in the US, issues facing the industry and the major players in the US smart grid industry.

From section 14, we focus on the regulatory initiatives and incentives provided in the US for the growth of the renewable energy market. Under this section we analyze the federal and state-level investment incentives, the role of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 in promoting the renewable energy market, financial incentives for renewable energy by state, federal financial incentives for renewable energy, renewable energy regulations and policies by state, and federal regulations and policies for renewable energy in the US.

Section 15 analyzes the outlook for the US renewable energy industry through various viewpoints. We undertake an analysis of the following: government and institutional outlook, outlook by trade associations, outlook for the investing potential of the industry, outlook for technological innovation, long-term energy projections, wind power market outlook, solar power outlook, hydropower market outlook, geothermal energy market outlook, biomass market outlook, biodiesel and ethanol market outlook, and the future prospects for the US energy and renewable energy industry.

In conclusion, Aruvians Rsearch's report on the Renewable Energy Industry in the United States is the most comprehensive resource available on this market that undertakes a strategic and analytical view of the US renewable energy industry.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Section 1: Overview of the Industry

B. A Look at the Global Energy Industry
B.1 Industry Profile
B.2 Looking at the Global Oil Market
B.3 Looking at the Global Natural Gas
B.4 Looking at Other Fuels
B.5 Industry Outlook

C. Introduction to the US Renewable Energy Industry
C.1 Industry Overview
C.2 Why the US Needs Renewables
C.3 Trends in the Market
C.3.1 Falling Prices of Oil and Gas
C.3.2 Modernization of the US Electrical Grid Modernization
C.3.3 2008 Financial Crisis and the Renewables Sector
C.3.4 Regulatory Support
C.3.5 Low Cost for Carbon Emissions Trading
C.3.6 Regulatory Support from President Obama
C.3.7 Role of China
C.3.8 High Cost of Renewable Energy Alternatives
C.3.9 Issue of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
C.4 Integration of Renewable Energy

D. Impacts & Barriers Facing the US Energy Industry
D.1 Industry Impacts
D.1.1 Advent of Nuclear Energy
D.1.2 Entry of Non-Major Companies
D.1.3 Hedging Instruments
D.2 Barriers Facing the Industry
D.2.1 Recent Market Trends
D.2.2 Rise in Demand Likely for Oil, Natural Gas & Propane
D.2.3 'Smart' Drilling Prototype Yields More Oil & Gas
D.2.4 Challenge of Nuclear Wastage
D.2.5 Crude Oil Proved Reserves Decline, Natural Gas Proved Reserves Up
D.2.6 Oil & Gas Industry Expenditures
D.2.7 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill
D.2.8 Saturation of Resources in the North Sea
D.3 Industry Trends
D.3.1 Petroleum Industry Mergers and Market Concentration
D.3.2 Energy Usage
D.3.3 Venture Capital Investments in Clean Energy
D.3.4 Large Energy Imports
D.3.5 Energy Efficiency Trends
D.4 Trends in Renewable Energy
D.5 Market Growth Opportunities
D.5.1 Bio-Energy Market
D.5.2 Stationary Fuel Cells Market
D.5.3 Potential of the Ethanol Fuel Industry

E. Competition in the Industry
E.1 Overview of Competition
E.2 Nuclear Energy Facing Competition from Gas and Coal
E.3 Competition Fostering Reliability Choices

F. Policy Resolutions to the US Energy Crisis
F.1 Supply-Side Resolutions
F.2 Demand-Side Resolutions
F.3 Resolving Cost Issues
F.4 Resolving Regulatory and Legal Issues
F.5 Boosting Industry Performance through Government Programs
F.6 Conclusion

G. US Renewable Energy Market: SWOT Framework Analysis
G.1 Strengths to Build Upon
G.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
G.3 Opportunities to Exploit
G.4 Threats to Overcome

H. SWOT Framework Analysis: Top 5 Renewable Technologies in the US
H.1 Wind Power
H.1.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.1.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.1.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.1.4 Threats to Overcome
H.2 Solar Power
H.2.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.2.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.2.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.2.4 Threats to Overcome
H.3 Geothermal Power
H.3.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.3.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.3.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.3.4 Threats to Overcome
H.4 Energy from Biomass
H.4.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.4.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.4.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.4.4 Threats to Overcome
H.5 Small Hydro Power
H.5.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.5.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.5.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.5.4 Threats to Overview
H.6 Conclusion

I. Regulatory Framework for Renewable Energy in the US
I.1 Overview
I.2 History of Energy Policy in the US
I.3 US Energy Independence
I.3.1 Terrorism, Embargo and Other Factors
I.3.2 Strategies Being Applied
I.3.3 Issues and Criticisms
I.4 Relations with Other Oil-Producing Countries

J. Production of Electricity from RES: State-wise Analysis

K. Regulations and their Impact on the Renewable Energy Sector
K.1 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
K.1.1 Energy Infrastructure
K.1.2 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research and Investment
K.1.3 Tax Incentives for Companies
K.1.4 Business Tax Provisions
K.2 Feed-in-Tariffs
K.2.1 California
K.2.2 Florida
K.2.3 Hawaii
K.2.4 Maine
K.2.5 Oregon
K.2.6 Vermont
K.2.7 Puerto Rico
K.3 Renewable Portfolio Standards
K.3.1 Additional Non-binding Goals
K.3.2 Program Coverage
K.3.3 Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
K.3.4 Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs)
K.3.5 Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) – Multipliers
K.3.6 Tiers and Set Asides
K.3.7 Eligible Technologies
K.3.8 Penalties
K.3.9 Cost Caps
K.3.10 Cost Recovery
K.3.11 Federal RPS Programs
K.3.12 RPS Programs by State
K.3.12.1 California
K.3.12.2 Colorado
K.3.12.3 Nevada
K.3.12.4 Florida
K.3.12.5 Ohio
K.3.12.6 Pennsylvania
K.3.12.7 Texas
K.4 DOE Wind Program
K.5 DOE Geothermal Technologies Program
K.6 Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975
K.7 Clean Air Act
K.8 Energy Policy Act of 1992
K.9 Energy Policy Act of 2005
K.9.1 General Provisions of the Act
K.9.2 Energy Management
K.9.3 Criticism of the Act
K.10 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
K.11 Fuel Cell Initiatives by the US DOE
K.12 California Solar Initiative
K.13 EPA Initiatives
K.14 Green Power Partnership
K.15 Minerals Management Service's Program
K.16 New Energy Frontier
K.16.1 Renewable Energy
K.16.2 Conventional Energy and Compliance
K.16.3 Royalty Payments
K.17 Solar America Initiative
K.18 US Geological Survey's Program
K.19 Fish and Wildlife Service's Program

L. Major Players in the Renewable Energy Industry
L.1 Bosch
L.2 GE Energy
L.3 Iberdrola Renovables, SA
L.4 GreenHunter Energy, Inc
L.5 Sharp Corporation
L.6 Shell Renewables

Section 2: Wind Power in the United States

A. Wind Power Market in the US
A.1 Industry Overview
A.2 Wind Power Generation by State
A.3 Installed Capacity Growth
A.4 Wind Resources in the US
A.5 Transmission and Integration of Wind Power
A.6 Electrical Energy Generated by Wind
A.7 Ramping Up of Manufacturing Capacity
A.8 Traditional Electricity Generation versus Wind Power
A.9 Market for Wind Turbine Manufacturing
A.10 Federal Production Tax Credit for Wind Power
A.11 Offshore Wind Power Market

B. Role of Wind in the Energy Industry

C. Cost of Wind Power
C.1 Overview
C.2 Finding Alternative Investment for Wind Power

D. Wind Power in the US – Market Trends
D.1 Rising Demand for Energy
D.2 Global Climate Change
D.3 Renewable Quota System
D.4 Rising Cost Competitiveness
D.5 Offshore Wind Power Trends
D.6 Emergence of Merchant Wind Plants
D.7 Emergence of "Inside the Fence" Projects

E. Barriers Facing the US Wind Power Market
E.1 Permitting Challenges
E.2 Restrictions on Transmission
E.3 Risk Aversion

F. Small Wind Turbines Market
F.1 What is a Small Wind Turbine?
F.2 Applications of Small Wind Turbines
F.2.1 Overview
F.2.2 Grid-Connected Applications
F.3 Small Wind Turbine Market in the US
F.4 Emergence of Hybrid Small Wind Turbines
F.5 Emergence of Very Small Wind Turbines
F.6 Role of Wind-Diesel Hybrid Turbine Systems
F.7 Economics of Small Wind Turbines
F.8 Factors Affecting the US SWT Market
F.8.1 Regulatory Incentives
F.8.2 Certification Processes
F.8.3 External Investment
F.8.4 Poor Zoning/Permitting Practices
F.8.5 Better Technology for Resource Assessment
F.8.6 Consolidation in the Industry
F.8.7 Economic Conditions
F.8.8 Strong Dealer Networks
F.9 Regulatory Framework
F.9.1 FERC Ruling
F.9.2 Federal Renewable Electricity Standard
F.9.3 Government Incentives
F.10 Role of PACE Bonds in the US Market
F.11 Cost of Electricity and Role of Small Wind Turbines
F.12 Utility Policies Impacting the Market
F.13 Market Trends

G. Micro Wind Generation in the US
G.1 Overview
G.2 Microgrid and Micro Wind Generator
G.3 Measurement, Communication and Monitoring (MCM) System
G.3.1 Technical Specifications
G.4 Conclusion

H. Wind Power in the US – Analysis by State
H.1 Arizona
H.2 California
H.3 Colorado
H.4 Illinois
H.5 Indiana
H.6 Iowa
H.7 Kansas
H.8 Maine
H.9 Massachusetts
H.10 Minnesota
H.11 Montana
H.12 New Hampshire
H.13 New York
H.14 Ohio
H.15 Oregon
H.16 Pennsylvania
H.17 Texas
H.18 Vermont
H.19 Washington
H.20 Wyoming

I. Major Wind Farms
I.1 Altamont Pass Wind Farm
I.2 Alta Wind Energy Center
I.3 Benton County Wind Farm
I.4 Biglow Canyon Wind Farm
I.5 Big Horn Wind Farm
I.6 Blue Canyon Wind Farm
I.7 Blue Sky Green Field Wind Farm
I.8 Brazos Wind Ranch
I.9 Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
I.10 Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm
I.12 Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm
I.13 Cedar Creek Wind Farm
I.14 Desert Sky Wind Farm
I.15 Dutch Hill/Cohocton Wind Farm
I.16 Enbridge Ontario Wind Farm
I.17 Fenton Wind Farm
I.18 Forward Wind Energy Center
I.19 Fowler Ridge Wind Farm
I.20 Glacier Wind Farm
I.21 Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm
I.22 Gulf Wind Farm
I.23 Hackberry Wind Project
I.24 Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
I.25 Intrepid Wind Farm
I.26 Judith Gap Wind Farm
I.27 Kibby Wind Power Project
I.28 King Mountain Wind Farm
I.29 Klondike Wind Farm
I.30 Lone Star Wind Farm
I.31 Locust Ridge Wind Farm
I.32 Maple Ridge Wind Farms I and II
I.33 Marengo Wind Farm
I.34 Meadow Lake Wind Farm
I.35 Milford Wind Corridor Project
I.36 Mount Storm Wind Farm
I.37 New Mexico Wind Energy Center
I.38 Panther Creek Wind Farm
I.39 Peetz Wind Farm
I.40 Peñascal Wind Farm
I.41 Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm
I.42 Roscoe Wind Farm
I.43 San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
I.44 Sherbino Wind Farm
I.45 Shiloh Wind Farm
I.46 Smoky Hills Wind Farm
I.47 Stateline Wind Project
I.48 Story County Wind Farm
I.49 Streator Cayuga Ridge South Wind Farm
I.50 Sweetwater Wind Farm
I.51 Tatanka Wind Farm
I.52 Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
I.53 Trent Wind Farm
I.54 Twin Groves Wind Farms I and II
I.55 Walnut Wind Farm
I.56 Wethersfield Wind Park
I.57 Whispering Willow Wind Farm
I.58 Windy Point/Windy Flats
I.59 White Creek Wind Power Project
I.60 Wild Horse Wind Farm
I.61 Wildorado Wind Ranch

J. Wind Power in the US: Market Outlook

K. Major Players in the US Wind Power Industry
K.1 Acciona SA
K.2 Airtricity
K.3 American Electric Power Company, Inc.
K.4 Alstom
K.5 AREVA SA
K.6 Blue H Group Technologies Ltd
K.7 Bornay
K.8 Clipper Windpower, PLC
K.9 EDF Energies Nouvelles
K.10 Emergya Wind Technologies
K.11 Energie Baden-Wuerttenberg AG (EnBW)
K.12 Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra (EHN)
K.13 E.ON
K.14 First Wind (Formerly UPC Wind)
K.15 Forewind Limited
K.16 Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica
K.17 GE Wind Power
K.18 Horizon Wind Energy
K.19 Iberdrola Renovables
K.20 LM Wind Power
K.21 MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company
K.22 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
K.23 NextEra Energy Resources
K.24 Nordex AG
K.25 REpower AG
K.26 RWE AG
K.27 Siemens Wind Power
K.28 Statkraft
K.29 Statoil ASA
K.30 Suzlon Energy Limited
K.31 Vattenfall
K.32 Vestas Wind Systems, AS
K.33 Windflow Technology, Ltd
Section 3: Solar Power in the United States

A. Market Profile
A.1 Overview
A.2 Solar Resource in the US
A.3 Growth of the Industry
A.4 Solar Thermal Plants
A.4.1 Plants under Construction
A.4.2 Proposed Plants
A.5 Solar PV Market
A.6 Industry and Growth
A.7 Polysilicon Shortage

B. Consumer Energy Market and Impact of Solar Energy

C. Emerging Technologies in the Solar Power Market
C.1 Carbon Nanotubes
C.1.1 Overview
C.1.2 Types of Carbon Nanotubes
C.1.3 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes
C.1.4 Carbon Nanotubes and Photovoltaics
C.1.4.1 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrode
C.1.4.2 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes in DSSCs
C.2 Flexible Solar Cells
C.3 Holographic Solar Concentrator Technology
C.4 Hybrid Solar Cells
C.4.1 Overview
C.4.2 Types of Hybrid Solar Cells
C.4.2.1 Polymer–Nanoparticle Composite
C.4.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes
C.4.2.3 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
C.4.2.4 Nanostructured Inorganic–Small Molecules
C.4.3 Improving the Efficiency of Hybrid
C.5 Miniature Solar Cells
C.5.1 Overview
C.5.2 Increasing the Efficiency of Tandem Cells
C.6 Nanopillars
C.6.1 Overview
C.6.2 Relation between Nanopillars and Better Solar Cells
C.6.3 Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array PV
C.6.4 US DoE's Nanopillars and Solar Cells Project
C.7 Nanostructured Coating
C.8 Nanoplasmonic Solar Cells
C.9 Nanowire Solar Cells
C.10 Organic Photovoltaics
C.10.1 Overview
C.10.2 Multilayer Organic Photovoltaic Cells
C.10.3 Cost Analysis
C.11 Photoelectrochemical Cells
C.11.1 Overview
C.11.2 Types of Photoelectrochemical Cell
C.11.2.1 Photogeneration Cell
C.11.2.2 Graetzel Cell/Dye Sensitized Cell
C.12 Plasmonic Solar Cells
C.12.1 Overview
C.12.2 Applications of Plasmonic Solar Cells
C.12.2.1 Role in Space Exploration Vehicles
C.12.2.2 Role in Rural Electrification
C.12.2.3 Role in Producing High Power
C.12.2.4 Role in Consumer Electronics
C.12.3 Recent Developments
C.12.3.1 Third Generation Solar Cells
C.12.3.2 Multiple Energy Levels
C.12.3.3 Hot Carrier Cells
C.13 Polymer Solar Cells
C.13.1 Overview
C.13.2 Physical Features
C.13.3 Architecture of a Polymer Solar Cell
C.13.4 Potential Markets
C.13.5 Conclusion
C.14 Quantum Dot Solar Cells
C.14.1 Overview
C.14.2 Applications of Quantum Dots
C.14.2.1 Biological Applications
C.14.2.2 Quantum Computation Applications
C.14.2.3 Photovoltaics
C.14.2.4 Light Emitting Devices Applications
C.14.3 Quantum Wells and Superlattices
C.14.4 NASA's Research into Quantum Dots for Solar Cells
C.14.5 'Rainbow' Solar Cells
C.14.6 Conclusion
C.15 Quantum Well Solar Cells
C.16 Silicon Foil Technology
C.17 String Ribbon Solar Cells
C.17.1 Overview
C.17.2 Impact of String Ribbon on the Pricing of Solar Cells
C.17.3 Technological Analysis
C.18 Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.1 Overview
C.18.2 Types of Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.2.1 Amorphous Silicon
C.18.2.2 Cadmium Telluride
C.18.2.3 Copper Indium Gallium Selenide
C.18.2.4 Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
C.18.2.5 Organic Solar Cell
C.18.2.6 Thin-film Silicon
C.18.3 Efficiency Factor and Price of Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.3.1 Production Method
C.18.4 Dye-Sensitized Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.5 Nanotechnology and Thin Film Solar Cells

D. Incentives for Solar Power in the US
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Federal Tax Credits
D.3 Feed-in Tariff
D.4 Solar America Initiative
D.5 State-level Incentives
D.6 Solar Renewable Energy Certificates

E. Solar Power Market Analysis by State
E.1 Arizona
E.2 California
E.3 Hawaii
E.4 Nevada
E.5 New Jersey
E.6 New Mexico
E.7 Oregon

F. Federal/State Programs Promoting Solar Power
F.1 205 Kilowatt (kW) Installation
F.2 Open PV Mapping Project
F.3 US DOE SunShot Initiative
F.3.1 Overview
F.3.2 Photovoltaics
F.3.3 Concentrating Solar Power
F.3.4 Systems Integration
F.3.5 Market Transformation
F.4 US DOE Solar Decathlon
F.5 Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative

G. Investor Know-How about US Solar Power Industry

H. Solar Thermal Power Plants in the US
H.1 Blythe Solar Power Project
H.2 Calico Solar Energy Project
H.3 Fort Irwin
H.4 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility
H.5 Keahole Solar Power
H.6 Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant
H.7 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center
H.8 Mojave Solar Park
H.9 Nevada Solar One
H.10 Saguaro Solar Power Station
H.11 Sierra SunTower
H.12 Solana Generating Station
H.12 Solar Energy Generating Systems
H.14 The Solar Project
H.14.1 Solar One
H.14.2 Solar Two
H.14.2 Solar Tres

I. Solar Power in the US: Market Outlook

J. Major Players in the US Solar Power Market
J.1 Abound Solar
J.2 Aleo Solar
J.3 Amonix Incorporated
J.4 Antec Solar Energy AG
J.5 Applied Solar, Inc
J.6 Ascent Solar Technologies, Inc
J.7 ASE Americas, Inc
J.8 AstroPower Inc
J.9 Atlantis Energy Systems
J.10 AVANCIS
J.11 BP Solar
J.12 Canon
J.13 Calyxo GMBH
J.14 China Solar Energy Holdings
J.15 Citizenre
J.16 CSG Solar
J.17 Cyrium Technologies
J.18 DayStar Technologies, Inc.
J.19 EIQ Energy, Inc
J.20 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc
J.21 Entech Inc
J.22 EPV Solar
J.23 Ersol
J.24 Ertex Solar
J.25 Evergreen Solar, Inc
J.26 Ever-Q
J.27 First Solar, Inc
J.28 Global Solar
J.29 Green Energy Technologies
J.30 GT Solar
J.31 Greenshine New Energy
J.32 HelioGrid
J.33 HelioVolt
J.34 Honda Soltec
J.35 International Solar Electric Technology
J.36 Inventux Technologies AG
J.37 JA Solar Holdings
J.38 Johanna Solar
J.39 Kaneka Solartech
J.40 Konarka Technologies, Inc.
J.41 Kyocera Solar
J.42 LDK Solar Co, LTD
J.43 Miasolé
J.44 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
J.45 Moser Baer
J.46 Nanosolar
J.47 Nexpower
J.48 Odersun AG
J.49 Phoenix Solar AG
J.50 Photowatt International
J.51 Polar PV
J.52 PowerFilm, Inc.
J.53 PowerLight Corporation
J.54 PrimeStar Solar
J.55 Pyron Solar
J.56 Q-Cells
J.57 QS Solar
J.58 Quantum PV
J.59 QuNano
J.60 REC Solar
J.61 Sanyo Electric
J.62 Schott AG
J.63 Sharp Solar
J.64 Shell Solar Industries
J.65 Siemens Solar
J.66 Signet Solar
J.67 SkyFuel
J.68 Skyline Solar
J.69 Solar Electric Power Company
J.70 SoloPower
J.71 SolarWorld, AG
J.72 Solyndra
J.73 Sol Voltaics
J.74 Solterra Renewable Technologies Inc
J.75 Spectrolab, Inc.
J.76 Spire Corporation
J.77 Stirling Energy Systems
J.78 SunPower Corporation
J.79 SunEdison
J.80 Sunetric
J.81 Sungevity
J.82 Suniva
J.83 Suntech Power
J.84 TerraSolar, Inc.
J.85 Trina Solar, Ltd
J.86 United Solar Ovonic
J.87 Voxtel
J.88 Würth Solar

Section 4: US Biomass Power Market

A. Biomass Power Market in the US
A.1 Defining Biomass
A.2 Technical Analysis
A.3 Combustion Theory
A.4 Biomass Technologies
A.5 Charcoal Production
A.6 Commercialization of Biomass
A.7 Challenges Facing the Industry
A.7.1 Environment Issues
A.7.2 Others

B. Cost Analysis

C. US Biomass Power Industry: Market Outlook

Section 5: Biofuels in the US

A. Biofuels Market in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Production and Capacity Utilization
A.2.1 Ethanol
A.2.2 Biodiesel
A.3 Industry Structure
A.4 Market Opportunities and Issues
A.4.1 High Fuel Prices
A.4.2 Government Support
A.4.3 Upward Pressure on Corn Prices
A.4.4 High Competition
A.5 Government Funding Trends

B. Analysis of the US Ethanol Market
B.1 Tax Incentives
B.2 Dominance of Corn
B.3 Regulatory Framework
B.3.1 Renewable Fuel Standard
B.3.2 2011 Renewable Fuels Standards
B.3.3 State Waivers
B.3.4 Ethanol Provisions
B.3.5 MTBE
B.3.6 Renewable Energy
B.3.7 Biomass Funding
B.4 Ethanol By-Products
B.5 US Ethanol Industry: Market Outlook

C. US Biodiesel Market

D. Methanol Fuel Market

E. Butanol Fuel Market

F. Ethanol and Biodiesel Subsidies
F.1 Federal Regulations
F.2 Background to Subsidization of Biofuels
F.3 Biofuel Subsidies at Present
F.3.1 Output-linked Support
F.3.2 Market Price Support
F.3.3 Renewable Fuels Standards
F.3.4 Support for Capital Used in Manufacturing Biofuels
F.3.5 Generic Subsidies to Capital
F.3.6 Accelerated Deprecation
F.3.7 Price of Intermediate Inputs
F.3.8 Subsidies for Feedstocks
F.3.9 Subsidies Based on Consumption of Biofuels
F.3.10 Subsidies to Capital Related to Fuel Distribution and Disbursement
F.4 Conclusion

G. US Biofuels Industry: Industry Outlook

H. Major Players in the US Biofuels Industry
H.1 Abengoa Bioenergy
H.2 A2BE Carbon Capture
H.3 Allegro Biodiesel Corporation
H.4 American AgFuels
H.5 ALF Industries
H.6 Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
H.7 Aventine Renewable Energy
H.8 Bay Biodiesel LLC
H.9 BEST Energies
H.10 Biodiesel Systems, LLC
H.11 Bio Fuel Systems
H.12 Biotane Fuels
H.13 BlueFire Ethanol
H.14 Blue Marble Energy
H.15 BRI Energy, LLC
H.16 Broin Companies
H.17 Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation
H.18 DuPont Danisco
H.19 Dyadic International, Inc
H.20 Evolution Fuels (Formerly Earth Biofuels)
H.21 Fuel Bio Holdings
H.22 Genencor
H.23 Green Star Products, Inc.
H.24 Iogen Corporation
H.25 Imperium Renewables
H.26 LS9, Inc
H.27 Novozymes
H.28 PetroSun
H.29 Sapphire Energy
H.30 Solazyme
H.31 West Biofuels LLC
H.32 Verenium Corporation
H.33 XL Renewables

Section 6: Fuel Cells Market in the US

A. Fuel Cells in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Design of Fuel Cells
A.3 Technology behind Fuel Cells
A.3.1 Role of the Membrane Electrode Assembly
A.3.2 Role of the Catalyst
A.3.3 Primary Hardware
A.4 Research and Development & Investment in the Industry
A.4.1 VC and Public Market Investment
A.4.2 Performance of Fuel Cell Stocks

B. Types of Fuel Cells
B.1 Alkaline Fuel Cell
B.2 Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell
B.3 Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell
B.4 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
B.5 Electro-galvanic Fuel Cell
B.6 Flow Battery
B.7 Formic Acid Fuel Cell
B.8 Fuel Cells Minus Membranes
B.9 Metal Air Fuel Cells
B.10 Metal Hydride Fuel Cell
B.11 Microbial Fuel Cell
B.12 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
B.13 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
B.14 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
B.15 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
B.16 Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell
B.17 Regenerative Fuel Cells
B.18 Reversible Fuel Cell
B.19 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
B.20 Zinc-Air Fuel Cells

C. Challenges Facing the Industry
C.1 Design Issues
C.2 Cost Issues
C.3 Reliability and Durability Issues
C.4 Storage Problems
C.5 Size and Weight Issues
C.6 Fuel Flexibility
C.7 Low Operating Temperatures of PEM Fuel Cells
C.8 Public Support

D. Analysis of Fuel Cell Initiatives by State
D.1 Alaska
D.2 Arizona
D.3 Arkansas
D.4 California
D.5 Colorado
D.6 Connecticut
D.7 Delaware
D.8 District of Columbia
D.9 Florida
D.10 Georgia
D.11 Hawaii
D.12 Idaho
D.13 Illinois
D.14 Indiana
D.15 Iowa
D.16 Louisiana
D.17 Maine
D.18 Maryland
D.19 Massachusetts
D.20 Minnesota
D.21 Mississippi
D.22 Missouri
D.23 Montana
D.24 Nebraska
D.25 Nevada
D.26 New Jersey
D.27 New Mexico
D.28 New York
D.29 North Carolina
D.30 North Dakota
D.31 Ohio
D.32 Oklahoma
D.33 Oregon
D.34 Pennsylvania
D.35 Rhode Island
D.36 South Carolina
D.37 South Dakota
D.38 Tennessee
D.39 Texas
D.40 Utah
D.41 Virginia
D.42 Washington
D.43 West Virginia
D.44 Wisconsin
D.45 Wyoming

E. US Fuel Cells Market: Market Outlook

F. Major Players in the US Fuel Cells Market
F.1 Altergy Systems
F.2 Astris Energi Inc.
F.3 Ballard Power Systems
F.4 California Fuel Cell Partnership
F.5 Canon
F.6 Casio
F.7 Ceramic Fuel Cells
F.8 Cellex Power
F.9 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
F.10 Daimler AG
F.11 Entegris, Inc.
F.12 Eneos Celltech
F.13 Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd.
F.14 FuelCell Energy, Inc.
F.15 Hitachi
F.16 IdaTech LLC
F.17 Jadoo Power
F.18 Motorola
F.19 MTI Micro Fuel Cells
F.20 NTT DoCoMo Inc.
F.21 P21
F.22 Palcan Fuel Cells
F.23 Plug Power
F.24 Proton Energy Systems

Section 7: Geothermal Energy Market in the US

A. Geothermal Energy in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Geothermal Plants in the US
A.3 Installed Geothermal Capacity
A.4 High Capacity Factor of Geothermal Energy
A.5 Environmental Impact

B. Regulatory Drivers
B.1 Federal/State Renewable Standards
B.2 Federal Tax Incentives
B.3 Federal Permitting

C. Managing Carbon Emissions from Geothermal Power in US
C.1 Presence of Geothermal Resource in the US
C.2 Potential Power Production Capacity
C.3 2015 Power Production Potential - WGA Estimates
C.4 Deriving Economical Results from Technology Infusion
C.5 Geothermal Energy vs. Fossil Sources: Performance & Emission
C.6 Constraints to Developing Geothermal Energy on Mass Scale
C.7 Summing Up

D. US Geothermal Industry: Market Outlook

E. Major Players in the US Geothermal Industry
E.1 Calpine Corporation
E.2 Caithness Energy Development
E.3 Enel Green Power
E.4 Nevada Geothermal Power, Inc
E.5 Northern California Power Agency
E.6 Ormat International, Inc.
E.7 U.S. Geothermal Inc.

Section 8: Hydropower Industry in the US

A. Hydroelectricity Market in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Hydroelectric Power Plants in the U.S.
A.3 Pumped Storage Systems
A.4 US Hydropower Production
A.5 Baseload Power from Hydropower in the U.S.

B. Economics of Hydropower in the US

C. Hydropower and the Environment

D. Other Hydro Resources in the U.S.
D.1 OTEC
D.2 Tidal Energy
D.3 Wave Energy

E. Hydroelectric Power Stations in the U.S.
E.1 Bath County PSP
E.2 Chief Joseph Dam
E.3 Grand Coulee
E.4 Hoover Dam
E.5 John Day Dam
E.6 Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant
E.7 The Dalles Dam

F. US Hydropower Industry: Market Outlook

Section 9: Distributed Generation Technologies and Microgrids in the U.S.

A. Introduction to Distributed Generation
A.1 Defining Distributed Generation
A.2 Economies of Scale
A.3 Localized Generation
A.4 Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Systems
A.5 Cost Analysis
A.6 Emergence of Microgrids

B. Types of Power Generation
B.1 Combined Heat Power (CHP)/Cogeneration
B.2 Fuel Cells
B.3 Micro Combined Heat and Power (MicroCHP)
B.4 Microturbines
B.5 Photovoltaic Systems
B.6 Reciprocating Engines
B.7 Small-scale Wind Power Systems
B.8 Stirling Engines
B.8.1 Heating and Cooling
B.8.2 Combined Heat and Power
B.8.3 Solar Power Generation
B.8.4 Stirling Cryocoolers
B.8.5 Heat Pump
B.8.6 Marine Engines
B.8.7 Nuclear Power
B.8.8 Automotive Engines
B.8.9 Electric Vehicles
B.8.10 Aircraft Engines
B.8.11 Underwater Power Systems
B.8.12 Low Temperature Difference Engines

C. Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy
C.1 Overview
C.2 Economic Dispatch

D. Emergence of Microgrids in the US
D.1 Overview
D.2 Microgrids and Improvement in Quality of Service
D.3 Expansion Planning and Microgrids
D.4 Operating a Microgrid
D.4.1 Control Levels
D.4.2 Islanded vs. Interconnected Mode of Operation
D.4.3 Voltage and Frequency Management
D.4.4 IT Tools

E. Designs of Microgrids in the US
E.1 Technical and Commercial Protocols and Hardware Standardization
E.2 Safety and Protection
E.3 Microgrid Modeling and Simulation

F. Integrating Microgrids with Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, and Energy Efficiency
F.1 Overview
F.2 Composition of the Microgrid
F.3 Economics of the System
F.4 Relation between Supply and Demand
F.5 System Reliability
F.6 Conclusion

G. Ownership Models of Microgrids in the US

H. Microgrids and the US Smart Grid
H.1 Overview
H.2 What is a Smart Microgrid?
H.3 Technologies for Metering and Monitoring
H.4 Visualization of Metering Data
H.5 Energy Control
H.6 Challenges for Future Smart Grid Technologies

I. Integrated Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storage
I.1 Overview
I.2 Integrating DER with Smart Meter Deployment
I.3 Interoperability
I.4 Automation of Distributed Energy Resources
I.5 Primary Process Feedback
I.6 Intelligent Agents and Distributed Controllers
I.7 DER/EMS Management System
I.8 Relative Costs and Benefits of Distributed Energy Businesses
I.9 Incentives and Subsidies
I.10 Business Opportunities
I.10.1 Market-based DER
I.10.2 Examples of Business Models

J. Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory

K. DER Technologies in the US: Market Outlook

Section 10: Combined Heat and Power in the U.S.

A. CHP/Cogeneration in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Industry Background
A.3 Types of Cogeneration Plants
A.3.1 Micro Cogeneration
A.3.2 Mini Cogeneration
A.4 CHP Technologies in the U.S.
A.5 Applications of CHP
A.6 CHP System Products

B. CHP Systems in the U.S.
B.1 Introduction
B.2 Steam Turbines
B.3 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines
B.4 Combustion or Gas Turbines
B.5 Microturbines
B.6 Fuel Cells

C. CHP Market in the U.S.
C.1 Market Overview
C.2 Regulatory and Market Challenges Facing CHP
C.3 CHP and District Energy
C.4 CHP and District Heating

D. CHP and the Energy Situation in the US
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Growing Energy Demand
D.3 Restraints on Existing Energy Sources
D.4 Competition in the Global Energy Markets
D.5 Climate Change
D.6 Role of Modern Infrastructure
D.7 Energy Efficiency and CHP

E. Mini and Micro-Gas Turbines for CHP
E.1 Introduction
E.2 Pros and Cons of Micro-Turbines and CHP
E.3 Market for Micro-Turbines in the U.S.
E.4 Elements of a Micro-Turbine Generator
E.5 Current and Future Status of the Technology
E.6 Conclusion

F. Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids in the U.S.
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Application for a Market-based Micro CHP Grid
F.3 Market Outlook

G. CHP and Emissions Trading in the U.S.
G.1 Emissions Trading in the U.S.
G.2 Role of CHP in Emissions Trading
G.3 Challenges Facing CHP in its Role in Emissions Trading
G.3.1 Increase in Onsite Emissions and Decrease in Global Emissions
G.3.2 Distinguishing between Different Economic Sectors
G.3.3 Boundaries for Inclusion of CHP in an ETS

H. Why CHP is the Competitive Solution for the U.S.
H.1 Overview
H.2 Economic Benefits for the U.S.
H.3 Dealing with Local Energy Issues with CHP
H.3.1 Overview
H.3.2 Potential CHP Capacity
H.3.3 Increasing Role of CHP in Generation
H.4 Transition to Modernized Infrastructure
H.4.1 Overview
H.4.2 Location of Energy Resources near Demand
H.4.3 Utilities and Grid Benefits
H.4.4 Efficiency of the Power Grid
H.5 Challenges Facing the Industry
H.5.1 Regulating Fees and Tariffs
H.5.2 Problems with Grid Integration
H.5.3 Environmental Regulations
H.5.4 Taxation Issues
H.5.5 Technical Challenges
H.6 Addressing the Need for Further R&D

I. Market Growth of CHP Driven by Regulations
I.1 Interconnection
I.2 Greenhouse Gas Policy Mechanisms
I.3 Investment Tax Credits (ITCs)
I.4 CHP Emissions Treatment
I.5 Renewable Portfolio Standards

J. CHP Regulation in the U.S.
J.1 CHP and Regulations
J.2 CHP Energy Inputs
J.3 CHP Energy Outputs
J.3.1 Electricity
J.3.2 Heating & Cooling
J.4 Regulatory Framework and CHP
J.5 Traditional Regulatory Framework
J.6 Emerging Regulatory Framework
J.6.1 1992 Energy Policy Act and IPPs
J.6.2 State Electricity Restructuring Initiatives
J.7 Restructuring of Electricity at the State Level
J.8 Restructuring Initiatives
J.8.1 Implementation of Retail Choice
J.8.2 Separation of Utility Generation Functions & Divestiture of Assets
J.8.3 Open Access and Comparability for Utility Distribution Services
J.8.4 Utility's Obligation to Serve and its Status as 'Default Provider'
J.8.5 Liability for Transition Charges
J.8.6 Special Treatment for CHP/DG, Renewables, and Other Technologies
J.8.7 Transition Charge Exemptions
J.8.8 Utility Regulatory Exemptions
J.8.9 Transitional Rate Reductions and Post-Transition Rates

K. Energy Portfolio Standards and CHP
K.1 Emergence of Energy Portfolio Standards
K.2 Role of RPS
K.3 CHP Experience by States
K.3.1 California
K.3.2 Connecticut
K.3.3 Hawaii
K.3.4 Maine
K.3.5 Minnesota
K.3.6 Nevada
K.3.7 New York
K.3.8 Pennsylvania
K.3.9 Washingt

To order this report:
Renewable_energy Industry:
Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States

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