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In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets

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In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets

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STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

BCC Research's goal in conducting this study was to update the status of the global in vitro toxicity testing market and assess its growth potential over the five-year period from 2012 to 2017. We were particularly interested in understanding the current market adoption, and analyzing drivers for increasing this in terms of both scope (more applications) and scale (larger volume applications).
In addition, we were interested in understanding the impact of these methods on different industry sectors, specifically the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industries. Another key objective was to analyze the adoption of in vitro toxicity testing in developed and emerging markets.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Classical toxicology testing programs have been in place for many decades now. Over the past 20 years, animal welfare and scientific activities have spurred the development of alternative testing methods.

This report details the recent key technical advances in different toxicology categories, and the extent of adoption by commercial customers and regulatory authorities. We also were interested in identifying the impact of new bioinformatics advancements with possible application to toxicology, and examining their growth potential.

There are many groups of suppliers that provide equipment, assays, cells, reagents, and services used in toxicity testing. Previously, there was broad coverage of the services landscape, and this study sought to analyze the others in greater depth.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of the report encompasses the major types of traditional toxicity testing that have been used, and the in vitro techniques that are being developed by industry, government agencies and nonprofits. It analyzes current market status, examines drivers on future markets and presents forecasts of growth over the next five years.

Technology developments, including the latest trends, are discussed. Other influential factors such as validation and testing strategies for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and chemicals have also been included.

Regulatory drivers play a large role in toxicology, determining the specific parameters of tests that have been explicitly required. They also heavily influence the testing that is performed by companies in earlier stages of research. The report examines the regulatory role and the different federal and international agencies that play an active role in in vitro toxicology research, development and adoption.

The term 'predictive' is often used in conjunction with in vitro toxicology, and historically predictive approaches (also called 'nonmechanistic') have been contrasted with mechanistic approaches. This report does discuss where applicable the relative magnitude of the two. However, our research shows that increasingly the two are used in tandem, and that they are being viewed as complementary parts of an overall toolkit. Thus, our use of the term 'Predictive Toxicology' as a subject/discipline throughout is intended to encompass both predictive and mechanistic, and to connote an evolution of the overall toolkit. In keeping with the 'Tox 21' vision detailed later, the key attribute of this overall evolution is being more and more able to use in vitro methods to predict in vivo outcomes.

Relative to the pharmaceutical industry, this report covers the testing of pharmaceutical or so-called 'small molecule' drugs, synthesized from chemical compounds. Biologics, so-called 'large molecule' drugs, are tested via completely different approaches and technologies. Biologics safety testing is outside the scope of this report.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to satisfy the information needs of a wide variety of individuals involved in the toxicology, in vitro and in silico marketplaces, including company senior management executives seeking to base their strategic decisions on the latest insights into toxicology market forces and trends. It is also aimed at managers and executives in product research and development and particularly those responsible for bringing new products to market.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. Primary research included interviews with leading individuals in relevant companies and associations; primary sources of published data included research studies, company annual reports and government publications. Secondary sources consisted of literature searches, industry journals and other commercial publications. Data for market estimates and forecasts are pooled from a range of sources, critically assessed by BCC Research.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

Robert Hunter has over 20 years of experience in life sciences as an analyst, business development executive, project manager and management consultant for business processes, organizational development and systems implementation. Recent studies have included multiple stem cell lines for true genetic diversity and proteomic biomarkers for cancer via label-free imaging. He is an early investor in a company using stem cells for in vitroscreening of pharmaceutical compounds.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global in vitro toxicity testing market was valued at $4 billion in 2011 and more than $4.9 billion in 2012. This market is estimated to reach nearly $9.9 billion in 2017, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.7% for the five-year period, 2012 to 2017.
This report provides:
• An overview of the global in vitro toxicity testing market, with assessments of its growth potential over the next five years and the current market scenario for alternative measures to animal testing.
• Analyses of market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of CAGRs for the period 2012 and 2017.
• Discussion of the two major technology-based approaches, mechanistic and nonmechanistic.
• A breakdown of influential factors, such as validation of the alternative measures for toxicity and toxicity testing strategies for chemicals, pesticides, and food additives.
• Comprehensive company profiles of major players.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY,
2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6


CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

BASICS OF TOXICOLOGY 10
TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 10
REGULATORY RISK ASSESSMENT 11
PRODUCT TOXICITY TESTS 11
DEGREES OF TOXICITY 12
ABOUT DOSES 13
DOSE 13
DOSE RESPONSE 13
THRESHOLD DOSE 13
ABOUT TOXIC SUBSTANCES 13
TOXICANT 13
TOXIN 14
ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY 14
TOXICOKINETICS 14
ABSORPTION 14
Oral 14
Inhalation 15
Dermal and Parenteral Routes 15
DISTRIBUTION 15
METABOLISM 15
EXCRETION 16
TRADITIONAL (IN VIVO) TOXICOLOGY 16
ISSUES WITH IN VIVO APPROACHES 16
Reduction, Refinement and Replacement - the '3Rs' Driver 16
Other Drivers 17
Background: Sheer Volume of Testing Required 17
Conflicting Data 17
Megadosing 18
Time and Cost 18
Mixtures of Chemicals 18
Example of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Bisphenol A 18
NEED FOR MORE EXPOSURE SCIENCE 19
EVOLUTION OF IN VITRO METHODS 20
TOXCAST 20
TOX 21 21
REACH 21
EU RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS 21
CURRENT ADOPTION OF IN VITRO METHODS 22
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 22
EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIAL ADOPTION: CARDIOVASCULAR TESTING 24

CHAPTER 4 SPECIFIC TOXICITY TESTS AND FOUNDATIONAL SOLUTIONS (SMALLER SCALE) 26

TESTING FOR ADVERSE EFFECTS ON THE SKIN 26
SKIN IRRITATION 26
SKIN CORROSION 27
PHOTOTOXICITY 28
SKIN SENSITIZATION 28
TESTING FOR EYE IRRITATION 29
OVERVIEW OF ACUTE SYSTEMIC TOXICITY 30
TESTING FOR ACUTE TOXICITY 30
TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE RAT ORAL LD50 FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES
(MG/KG) 31
USE OF CYTOTOXICITY ASSAYS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TESTING 32
EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY KIT 33
CHRONIC/REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY 33
GOALS OF CHRONIC/REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY STUDIES 34
Effects of Accumulation and Frequency of Exposure 34
Dosage Levels 35
Duration 35
Reversibility 35
Analysis 36
Development of Repeated Dose Toxicity Testing In Vitro 36
CARCINOGENICITY AND GENOTOXICITY 36
INTRODUCTION 36
IN VITRO METHODS: BACKGROUND AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 36
REGULATORY VERSUS DRUG DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS 37
THE AMES TEST 37
IN VITRO MICRONUCLEUS TEST (MNT) 38
EFFORTS TO REDUCE FALSE POSITIVES 38
EXAMPLE OF RECENT INNOVATIONS 38
FUTURE CHALLENGE: NONGENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS 39
REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY 40
BACKGROUND 40
FOLLOWING THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE 40
Embryotoxicity 41
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY 41
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY 41
TYPES OF REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING 42
Zebrafish Model for Developmental Toxicity Screening 42
Combinations of Zebrafish and Stem Cells 43
BIOMEDICAL FRONTIERS 43
ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING 44
BACKGROUND 44
ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY IMPACTS ON IN VITRO METHODS 44
U.S. EPA ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM 45
TABLE 2 ASSAYS INCLUDED IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, IN VITRO AND IN
VIVO 45
HIGH PRODUCTION VOLUME (HPV) CHEMICALS 46
EDSP 21 Initiative 46
Future Challenge: Thyroid Disruption 46
EXAMPLE OF RECENT DEVELOPMENT: 'BG1' ASSAY 46
CHALLENGE FOR CHEMICAL COMPANIES: DEPTH AND BREADTH 47
Example of a Resource with Full Depth and Breadth 47
TOXICOKINETICS 48
IN VITRO DEVELOPMENTS 49
METABOLISM 49
In Vitro Metabolism Offerings 50
Metabolism Reaction Phenotyping for Genetic Polymorphisms 50
DEVELOPMENTS IN ABSORPTION BARRIER MODELS 51
Gastrointestinal 51
Lung 51
Blood-Brain Barrier 52
REVENUE ESTIMATE 53
SUMMARY 53
TABLE 3 FORECAST FOR FOUNDATIONAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES USED IN
PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 53
REVENUE ESTIMATE DETAILS AND PARTIAL LISTS OF SUPPLIERS 53
Tissues, Cell Lines, Primary Cells, Stem Cells 53
TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS USED IN PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 54
TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES
USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
TABLE 6 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING PRIMARY CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 55
TABLE 7 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING STEM CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 55
REAGENTS AND LABWARE 56
TABLE 8 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING REAGENTS AND LABWARE FOR
PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 56
Services 56
TABLE 9 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING SERVICES TAILORED FOR
PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 57
Basic Equipment 57
TABLE 10 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING BASIC EQUIPMENT FOR
FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY 58
INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION 58
COSMETICS INDUSTRY 58
TABLE 11 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO COSMETICS
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59
PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 60
TABLE 12 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO
PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 60
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 61
TABLE 13 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO CHEMICAL
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 61

CHAPTER 5 TOOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 63

OVERVIEW 63
OVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTOMICS 63
TOOLS USED IN TRANSCRIPTOMICS 64
MICROARRAYS 64
NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING 65
OVERVIEW OF PROTEOMICS 65
OVERVIEW OF METABOLOMICS 66
OVERVIEW OF METALLOMICS 67
TOOLS USED IN PROTEOMICS 67
TABLE 14 PARTIAL LIST OF MASS SPEC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON PROTEOMICS
APPLICATIONS 68
TOOLS USED IN METABOLOMICS 69
DETECTION 69
SEPARATION 70
HYPHENATED APPROACHES 70
TABLE 15 COMMON ANALYTICAL PLATFORMS USED IN METABOLOMICS 71
TOOLS USED IN METALLOMICS 72
REVENUE ESTIMATE FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS 72
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TOOLS USED IN PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 72
DETECTION - USED IN PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 73
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MASS SPECTROMETRY MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73
SEPARATION - USED IN METABOLOMICS 73
REVENUE ESTIMATE FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS 74
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS USED
IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
DISCUSSION 74

CHAPTER 6 CELLOMICS 77

BACKGROUND 77
EARLIER APPLICATIONS OF FLUORESCENCE 77
HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS) 78
TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS)
SOLUTIONS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 80
LABEL-FREE PLATFORMS 80
TABLE 20 EXAMPLES OF LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPANIES
SUPPLYING THEM 81
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY 81
TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOCUSED ON
CELLOMICS (LARGER SCALE STUDIES) FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 82
RECAP OF PREDICTIVE VS. MECHANISTIC 82
SAFETY TESTING OF CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG CANDIDATES 83
MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS (MEA) BASED ON IMPEDANCE 83
MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY USED IN CELLOMICS 84
REVENUE ESTIMATE 85
TABLE 22 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR CELLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 86

CHAPTER 7 ASSAY KITS, CELL LINES, STEM CELLS, CONSUMABLES AND SERVICES FOR LARGER SCREENING APPLICATIONS 88

OVERVIEW 88
REAGENTS FOR 'HOMEBREW' ASSAY DEVELOPMENT 88
ASSAY KITS FOR HIGH CONTENT SCREENING 88
CELL-BASED ASSAYS: OVERVIEW AND NEWER DEVELOPMENTS 88
COMPONENTS OF CELL-BASED ASSAY SYSTEMS 89
Microplates 90
IMPORTANCE OF 3D VERSUS 2D SYSTEMS 91
Microfluidics and 'Organs on a Chip' 92
3D Models for Skin 92
TYPES OF CELLS USED IN CELL-BASED ASSAYS 92
Immortalized Cell Lines and Primary Cells for Screening 93
Stem Cells at Scale for Screening 93
MODEL FOR ADOPTION: CARDIOVASCULAR SAFETY TESTING 94
APPLICATIONS IN LIVER TOXICITY STUDIES 96
USE OF STEM CELL-DERIVED HEPATOCYTES 97
CURRENT CHALLENGES: APPLICATIONS TO IMMUNE MEDIATED DILI 97
APPLICATIONS IN KIDNEY TOXICITY STUDIES 98
FUTURE CHALLENGE: STEM-CELL DERIVED KIDNEY CELLS 99
REVENUE FORECAST 99
TABLE 23 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR ASSAY KITS, OTHER CONSUMABLES AND
ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS)
99

CHAPTER 8 OVERVIEW OF IN SILICO TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 101

BACKGROUND 101
GENE EXPRESSION CLASSIFIERS BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 101
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFIERS BASED ON PATHWAYS AND NETWORKS 102
USE OF PATHWAY MAPS 103
QSARS 105
MODEL-BASED DRUG DEVELOPMENT 105
EXAMPLES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOLUTIONS 106
INGENUITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS (IPA) 106
GENEDATA SCREENER AND EXPRESSIONIST 108
THOMSON REUTERS METADRUG 108
ENTELOS PHYSIOLAB MODELER 109
REVENUE ESTIMATE 109
TABLE 24 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR IN SILICO PRODUCTS AND ASSOCIATED
SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS)
109

CHAPTER 9 BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT BUSINESS MODELS 111

BIOMARKERS 111
OVERVIEW AND SCOPE 111
CHALLENGES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 112
DRUG RESCUE 113
PRECISION MEDICINE APPLICATIONS 113
REVENUE ESTIMATE 114
TABLE 25 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT
BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS)
114

CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX 116

PATENT ANALYSIS 116
TABLE 26 EXAMPLES OF SOME IMPORTANT PATENTS RELATIVE TO PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 116
SAMPLE COMPANY PROFILES 120
ACCELRYS INC. 120
ACEA BIOSCIENCES INC. 121
AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES INC. 122
APTUIT INC. 124
BIOGNOSYS AG 125
BIORELIANCE 127
CEETOX INC. 128
CELLULAR DYNAMICS INTERNATIONAL INC. 129
CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING (CAAT) 130
CHANTEST 131
CHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES 132
CYPROTEX PLC 133
ENTELOS 134
ENZO LIFE SCIENCES INC. 135
EUROPEAN UNION REFERENCE LABORATORY FOR ALTERNATIVES TO
ANIMAL TESTING (EURL) 137
GE HEALTHCARE LIFE SCIENCES UK 137
GENEDATA 139
GENTRONIX LIMITED 139
THE HAMNER INSTITUTES FOR HEALTH SCIENCES 140
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE (HESI) 141
HUMANE SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL (HSI) 142
HUREL CORPORATION 143
IMSTAR S.A. 144
INGENUITY SYSTEMS 145
INSPHERO AG 146
INSTITUTE FOR IN VITRO SCIENCES INC. (IIVS) 147
INTELLICYT CORPORATION 148
KIYATEC INC. 149
MEDICYTE GMBH 150
METABOLON INC. 151
MOLECULAR DEVICES, LLC 152
NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE
TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS (NICEATM) 154
OCIMUM BIOSOLUTIONS LCC 155
PERKINELMER INC. 156
STEMINA BIOMARKER DISCOVERY INC. 157
STRATATECH CORPORATION 158
SYNVIVO INC. 159
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC 160
TNO 161
VALA SCIENCES INC. 162
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS INC. 163
ZEN-BIO INC. 164
XRPRO CORPORATION 164

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6
TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE RAT ORAL LD50 FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES
(MG/KG) 31
TABLE 2 ASSAYS INCLUDED IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, IN VITRO AND IN
VIVO 45
TABLE 3 FORECAST FOR FOUNDATIONAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES USED IN
PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES
USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
TABLE 6 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING PRIMARY CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 55
TABLE 7 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING STEM CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 55
TABLE 8 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING REAGENTS AND LABWARE FOR
PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 56
TABLE 9 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING SERVICES TAILORED FOR PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 57
TABLE 10 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING BASIC EQUIPMENT FOR
FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY 58
TABLE 11 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO COSMETICS
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 12 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO
PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 13 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO CHEMICAL
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 14 PARTIAL LIST OF MASS SPEC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON PROTEOMICS
APPLICATIONS 68
TABLE 15 COMMON ANALYTICAL PLATFORMS USED IN METABOLOMICS 71
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MASS SPECTROMETRY MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS USED IN
PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS)
SOLUTIONS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 80
TABLE 20 EXAMPLES OF LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPANIES
SUPPLYING THEM 81
TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOCUSED ON
CELLOMICS (LARGER SCALE STUDIES) FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 82
TABLE 22 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR CELLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 23 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR ASSAY KITS, OTHER CONSUMABLES AND
ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS)
99
TABLE 24 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR IN SILICO PRODUCTS AND ASSOCIATED
SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 25 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT
BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS)
114
TABLE 26 EXAMPLES OF SOME IMPORTANT PATENTS RELATIVE TO PREDICTIVE
TOXICOLOGY 116

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY,
2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6


Read the full report:
In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets

https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/1940408/In-Vitro-Toxicity-Testing-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html

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